The uniqueness of Central Java Indonesia lies in the cultures, noble tradition, and aesthetic that still maintained, along with friendliness, a strong entrepreneurial and openness to innovation. History shows the closeness of the relationship between the Javanese peoples with nature, mountains, canyons, and beaches that react the character’s culture and traditions of Central Java. This reflected in the craft, though the art and cultural masterpiece.
Since the seventh century of Java Indonesia history, there were many kingdoms who stood in Central Java. Kalinga Buddhist kingdom, ruled by Queen Jepara Sima in the year 674. According to the script / inscription of Canggah in 732, a Hindu kingdom was born in Medang Central Java with its King Sanjaya or Rakai Mataram. Under the reign of Sanjaya Dynasty, they built the Prambanan temple or Rorojonggrang temple. Buddhist kingdom of Mataram was also born in Central Java. During the reign of Syailendra Dynasty, they built many temples like Borobudur temple, Sewu temple, Kalasan temple, etc.
In the 16th century after the collapse of Hindu Majapahit kingdom, the Islam sultanate appeared in Demak, since that moment, the Islam religion start propagated in Central Java. After the sultanate Demak collapsed , Djoko Tingkir, the son-in-law of Demak’s King (Sultan Trenggono) move the Demak kingdom to Pajang (near Surakarta). And declare himself as King of the Kingdom of Pajang. Then he got titled of Sultan Adiwijaya. During his reign, there were riots. The greatest war is between the Sultan Adiwijaya against Aryo Penangsang. Sultan Adiwijaya commissioned Danang Sutowijaya to quell the rebellion of Aryo Penangsang. Danang Sutowijaya managed to kill Aryo Penangsang. Due to the great services to the Kingdom of Pajang, Adiwijaya give the Mataram land to Sutowijaya. After the collapse of Pajang Kingdom, Sutowijaya became the first muslim king of Mataram Kingdom in Central Java, also he got titled of Panembahan Senopati.
In the mid-16th century, the Portuguese and Spanish came to Indonesia in search of spices to be traded in Europe. At the same time, the British and then the Dutch came to Indonesia as well. With VOC, Dutch oppress the Indonesian peoples including the peoples of Central Java, both in politics and economics.
In the early 18th century, the kingdom of Mataram was ruled by Sri Sunan Pakubuwono II. After his death, there was dispute between the royal family who want to select / appoint to be a new king. The dispute grew bigger after the intervention of the Dutch colonial government in the royal family. The dispute was finally resolved by Gianti Agreement in 1755. Kingdom of Mataram was divided into two smaller kingdoms of Surakarta Sultanate or Kasunanan in Surakarta and Ngayogyakarta or Yogyakarta Sultanate.
Central Java as one of the provinces in Java Indonesia, its located between two major provinces, namely West Java and East Java province. Located 5°40 ‘and 8°30’ latitude and between 108°30 ‘and 111°30’ longitude (including the island of Karimun). The longest distance from west to east is 263 km and from north to south is 226 km (not including the island of Karimun).
Semarang city is the capital of Central Java. Central Java Province, administratively divided into 29 districts and 6 Cities. Central Java Area is 3.25 million hectares or about 25.04 percent of the size of Java island (1.70 percent of Indonesia). Area is comprised of 1.00 million hectares (30.80 percent) of wetland and 2.25 million hectares (69.20 percent) of non-wetland. Central Java is very popular with its Javanese culture. Some cultures originating from Javanese are javanese gamelan orchestra, javanese kris, ketoprak, also javanese wayang puppet.
^You can read of each Java Indonesia provinces in next articles in Provinces category.