History of Java Indonesia in the early 20th century are colored by the struggle to liberate themselves from Dutch colonialism. To see the history of Java at Prehistory and Early Kingdoms era, you can check previous article.
On May 20, 1908 in Batavia, found the the first native political society, namely “Budi Oetomo”. Budi Oetomo has marked the first nationalist movement in the early twentieth century in Java Indonesia history.
In 1911, in Central Java stood Islamic Trade Union (Serikat Dagang Islam, SDI). This organization was founded by H.O.S. Tjokroaminoto. In 1912, SDI became “Sarekat Islam” (SI). The organization expanded to other areas throughout Indonesia
Then in Bandung on 17-18 December 1927 stood Political Associations of Indonesia (Perhimpunan-Perhimpunan Politik Kebangsaan Indonesia, PPPKI). PPPKI is an native association of organizations that aims to liberate Indonesia. This organization consists of PNI, SI, Budi Oetomo, Paguyuban Pasundan, Sumatranen Bond, Kaum Betawi, and Indonesische Studi Club.
On March 1, 1942, Japan landed in Merak, Banten Bay, and in Indramayu. March 5, 1942, Japan got rid of the Dutch from Indonesia and managed to master the Batavia. Batavia name was changed by Japan to Jakarta. Then began the Japanese colonial period in Java Indonesia.
in early 1945 at Blitar, East Java, PETA (Defenders of the Homeland) rebellion started to fight the Japanese. This rebellion led by Supriyadi, Moeradi, Halir Mangkudijoyo, and Soemarto. But this rebellion was crushed .
Japanese colonial ended on August 17, 1945, when Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta proclaimed the independence of the Republic of Indonesia on the road East Pegangsaan no. 56, Jakarta. Post proclamation, Indonesia attempts takeover offices and communications equipment that is still controlled by the Japanese army.
October 1945, the Allies and soldiers of NICA (Netherlands Indies Civil Administration) landed in Jakarta. The Dutch apparently wanted to colonize Indonesia again. The Allies and NICA’s arrival was greeted with battles waged various forces throughout Jakarta.
On October 12, 1945, Allied forces and and NICA began entering Bandung city, West Java.
On October 19, 1945, Allied forces and and NICA landed in Central Java. Indonesian organized resistance, such resistance by the People’s Security Army (Tentara Keamanan Rakyat, TKR) in Magelang, Central Java on October 31 and November 9, 1945.
November 21, 1945, the Allies withdrew from Magelang and move into Ambarawa, Central Java. The Indonesian army then attack the Ambarawa, there was a battle event during four-day four-night known as “Palagan Ambarawa“. December 15, 1945, the Allied forces withdrew from Ambarawa.
In November 1945, the war also erupted in all parts of Jakarta. Mayor of Jakarta, Soewiryo arrested by the Dutch. Since then, the Dutch master Jakarta.
On November 27, 1945, Bandung was divided into two regions. Northern regions of the railroad in downtown Bandung occupied by the Allies and the Netherlands. While the Indonesian take over the southern regions of railroads .
On January 4, 1946, the capital of the Republic of Indonesia moved to Yogyakarta. All native Indonesian leaders including the President and Vice President also moved to Yogyakarta.
On March 24, 1946, the city of Bandung in West Java abandoned by Indonesian. After Indonesian peoples leave the city, Bandung was burned by the Assembly of the United Struggle of Priangan (Majelis Persatuan Perjuangan Priangan, MP3) for important buildings not occupied by the Dutch. This event is remembered as the “Bandung Lautan Api”.
In November 1946 occurred the power transition from Allied to the Dutch. In March 1947, held Linggajati negotiations, in Kuningan regency, West Java. This negotiations result in decisions that Dutch recognized the sovereignty of Indonesia, which consists of Java, Sumatra and Madura. Both parties agree to form the United States of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia Serikat, RIS).
On July 21, 1947, although still bound by the ceasefire agreement and the Linggadjati agreement, Dutch Military Aggression and raided several areas in Java Indonesia. This Dutch military aggression ended after the Renville agreement.
The Communist Party of Indonesia (Partai Komunis Indonesia, PKI) occurred the rebellion in September 18, 1948 at Madiun. But this rebellion can be crushed by the Indonesian Army.
On December 19, 1948, the Dutch military attack Yogyakarta. In this Dutch military aggression, the Dutch arrest President Sukarno and Vice President Mohammad Hatta. Although its leaders arrested, people still take the fight under the leadership of General Sudirman.
Blitar in East Java, who was still used as a place of the East Java provincial government was also attacked by the Dutch.
On March 1, 1949, Lieutenant Colonel Soeharto led a general attack. The Indonesian army overran the Yogyakarta for 6 hours.
The second Dutch military aggression ended after Roem-Royen agreement dated May 7, 1949.
The Dutch began to withdraw its troops after the Round Table Conference (Konferensi Meja Bundar, KMB) which resulted the charter of the recognition of the United States of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia Serikat, RIS).
When Indonesia adopts the united states system. Java is divided into several states, such as East Java state, the Pasundan state (West Java), Madura state, and so forth. Yogyakarta became the administrative center of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia (Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia, NKRI)
But people do not like this government system. People demanded the dissolution of states and back into a unitary again. Finally on February 25, 1950, the East Java state was dissolved and became part of the territory of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia. This decision was followed by the Madura state. Also on March 8, 1950, Pasundan state demand to rejoin the Unitary Republic of Indonesia.
On August 15, 1950 RIS disbanded and returned to “Republic of Indonesia” form. On 17 August 1950, the Republic of Indonesia re-established and the capital was moved to Jakarta again.
in 1965 occurred PKI (The Communist Party of Indonesia) rebellion, remembered by “G30S PKI”. In this rebellion, PKI kill Indonesian commanders in Jakarta and Yogyakarta.
Student organizations such as HMI, PMII, and PMKRI on 17 November 1965 agreed to form a unitary Indonesian Student Action (Kesatuan Aksi Mahasiswa Indonesia, KAMI) in order to form a new state vision and erode the PKI.
The Army Strategic Commander at the time, Major General Suharto, crushed the coup and against the PKI. Suharto also exploits this situation to control the Indonesian government.
In 1968, Suharto was inaugurated as president for 5 years term, and he was sworn in again then several times.
In mid 1997, Indonesia was hit by financial and economic crisis. This triggered public discontent. The students pushed Suharto to resign. Finally, Soeharto resigned on May 21, 1998, the Vice-President, B. J. Habibie, temporarily rose to president.
After that the President of Indonesia changed several times, namely Abdurrahman Wahid in 1999-2000, followed by Megawati in the year 2000-2004. Megawati is the daughter of Sukarno (the first president of Indonesia). In 2004 until now Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono was elected as new president of Indonesia.